TOPICS: Intra-ethnic conflict, Chalo, Asha, Security
Christian Chereji and Ciprian Sandu
ARTICLES in Issue 40 – July 2022:
Nigeria: Managing inter-ethnic conflicts in Ebiraland, Kogi State
Segun JOSHUA & Rotimi AJAYI
It is incontrovertible that mono-causal analysis of conflict is no longer tenable, as conflict is caused by a confluence of factors. Over the years, intra-ethnic conflict in Ebiraland has attracted scholarly works. However, amid the myriad of variables accentuating conflict in Ebiraland, clan politics seems to be dominant but the intensity of the conflict has reduced since Governor Yahaya Bello’s administration in Kogi state in 2015. Hence the relative peace in an area hitherto embroiled with hostilities. Anchored on conflict management theory, with reliance on primary and secondary data sources, the study attempts to answer the following questions: What was the state of the conflict in Ebiraland before the Yahaya Bello’s regime? What conflict resolution mechanisms did the Governor deploy to achieve the relative peace in that part of the state? What measures should be in place towards sustaining the prevailing peaceful atmosphere in the area even at the expiration of the tenure of the current administration? These, among other issues, constitute the theme of this study.
Intra-ethnic conflict, clan politics, Ebiraland, Kogi State, Nigeria.
Ethiopia: Chalo – Indigenous Conflict Resolution Mechanism of Yem People and Its Implication on Peace, Security, and Good Governance
Yitagesu Bekele NIGATU & Birtuneh Degife JOBIR
In Ethiopia, many ethnic groups have developed their own conflict resolution mechanisms. The ethnic group of Yem in south-western Ethiopia is one of those with its own conflict resolution mechanism (the Chalo judicial system). The objective of the study was exploring the practice through which the studied community deals with conflicts by using the Chalo judicial system and its implication for peace, security and good governance. A qualitative research design was employed under which, key informants’ interviews, focus group discussion, document analysis and observations were conducted and the data was analyzed qualitatively. The finding of the study revealed that, the Chalo judicial system plays an important role in maintaining the peace and security of the community. The Chalo judicial system has its own execution time, process, and actors involved. Theft and betrayal, inheritance, boundary conflict, and divorce are some of the sorts of conflict that are presented and handled in the Chalo judiciary. Besides, the study revealed that, while it is used to resolve a wide range of conflicts on the ground, it is not adequately recognized by national law and lacks a strong link with the formal court system. Therefore, this research recommend that the members of the community, the woreda culture and tourism office, higher educational institutions, and the government shall collaborate in order to conserve and pass on this sort of indigenous conflict resolution mechanism which upholds community peace and security to future generations.
Chalo, elders, indigenous conflict resolution, governance, peace, security.
Ethiopia: Asha Indigenous Conflict Resolution Apparatus of the Me’en Community
Wondimu Shanko TAGEL
Every community has its own indigenous institutions meant to deal with its social, political, economic and peacemaking endeavors. Focus of this article is Asha indigenous conflict resolution institution of the Me’en community. For the studied community, Asha, signifies a payment for ‘blood’ and exhibits ritual restitution. Ritual restitution within Asha is administered by ritual chiefs known as Komoruts. Objective of this article is exploring the Asha approach for conflict resolution. To realize this objective, the researcher employed qualitative research design enhanced with twelve key-informant interview and two Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Built up on such data, findings of the study revealed four conclusions. First, irrespective of the fact that Asha is an approach owned by Me’en communities, adjoining communities abide by it. Secondly, Asha is the only approach potent to solve conflicts that end up with human demise. Thirdly, notwithstanding the endeavor by local and regional governments to make Asha compatible with notion of human right principles, there is trivial acceptance by the study community members, especially by lowlanders. Fourthly, the research finding unpacked that Asha has weakness when it comes to promoting human right of the teenage girl given for reconciliation. Additionally, Asha also botched to respect due process of law. Generally speaking, the article concluded that Asha is as a doubled edged sword, vivacious and viral. On one side, Asha is the only approach for restoring broken social relationships and reconciling conflict cases that end up with human demise. On the other side, Asha is an approach that contravenes human right of the teenage girl. In glimpse of these, the researcher recommends neither deserting nor romanticizing Ethiopian indigenous conflict resolution mechanisms such as Asha without further research and remedial measures to make them compatible with Universal Human Right principles.
Asha, conflict, conflict resolution, Me’en, indigenous conflict resolution.
Nigeria: The Imperatives of Internal Security and Development – Problems and Prospects
Dhikru Adewale YAGBOYAJU
Among the issues of governance confronting Nigeria, security is generally regarded as crucial. There is no doubt about the strong relationship between security and development. This paper takes an opposing view to the dominant approach of a colonially foisted statist and law-and-order conception of security by successive administrations in Nigeria. The paper emphasizes certain small things that matter for securing the lives of Nigerians, and ensuring sustainable development in the country. These include socio cultural, economic and political factors that should catalyze citizens’ participation in the national security architecture and in the country’s development aspirations and goals. Data is drawn from secondary sources for the conceptual and theoretical sections of the paper. Primary data is drawn from events analyses, interviews with selected experts in University of Ibadan and from content analyses of selected documents on contemporary politics, economy and society in Nigeria. This is supported by interactions with respondents in selected markets and locations around the country. Political culture, with focus on the prebendalist perspective, is deployed for the paper’s analytic frame.
Security threats, endemic corruption, political culture, citizens’ participation.