TOPICS: Adat, DDR of ex-combatants, US Middle East policy, South China Sea
Christian Chereji and Ciprian Sandu
ARTICLES in Issue 34 – January 2021:
Kazakhstan: Adat-The Traditional Conflict Management Mechanism in Central Asia
Christian-Radu CHEREJI & Ciprian SANDU
The following article is based on the three principles of the anthropology of law and portrays the experiences of the Chechens and the meaning of their cultural norms, especially in case of conflicts and conflict management, back home and inside a foreign country – Kazakhstan – and sometimes in a clash with the Sharia law and the federal/republican one. More specifically, this article will focus on Adat – norms of local customary law – in the traditional Chechen society. This study was developed in Karaganda (Kazakhstan) with the help of the data and information provided by the Chechen Veteran’s Council in Kazakhstan and the vice-dean of the Law Faculty in Karaganda and it found out that conflicts can be addressed through the extension of existing alternative dispute resolution mechanisms.
Adat, mediation, teip, tukkhum, Kazakhstan, customary law, legal anthropology.
Sierra Leone: Mapping the Disarmament, Demobilisation-Remobilisation and Reintegration of Ex-combatants. Prospects for Sustainable Peace
Disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) programmes are necessary in states that experience armed conflict. Several post-conflict societies are usually characterised by the activities of individuals who undermine state-building efforts and prefer to work against joint problem solving aimed at sustaining peace. The study explores the change and continuity in the DDR programme and prospects for sustainable peace in Sierra Leone. With primary and secondary sources, including key informant interview with a former Minister, the paper responds to these questions: To what extent did remobilisation undermine peace agreements? How were the weapons and ex-combatants controlled by the government? What were the lessons and challenges of the DDR programme? How are the stakeholders sustaining post-DDR peace at the community level? The success of the state-building was occasioned by the joint problem-solving approach adopted by the National Committee for Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (NCDDR), ECOMOG troops, the UN Observer Mission in Sierra Leon, and other stakeholders at the community level. This paper stresses that the remobilisation of ex-combatants increased the intensity of the war which necessitated more external intervention to create enabling environment for state-building and security sector reforms. Sustaining peace in Sierra Leone demands continuous empowerment of youths and their active involvement in informal peace education. Post-DDR peacebuilding should be more youth-focused and development-oriented to prevent the resurgence of armed conflicts.
DDR, Ex-combatants, Peace agreement, Remobilisation, State building.
United States: A Review of the US Middle East Policy from Harry Truman to Bill Clinton
Kardo RACHED & Salam ABDULRAHMAN
Since the Second World War, the Middle East has been mentioned in connection with the national interest of America manifested by US presidents. This paper looks at the US foreign policy in the Middle East from Truman to Clinton on the premise that the US foreign policy has contributed to creating a breeding ground for dissatisfaction toward the US In this context, the paper focuses on the doctrines in use from the time of President Truman to Clinton. Thus, every American president has a doctrine, and this doctrine tells what political line the president follows regarding domestic and foreign policies.
Middle-East, Israel, US national interest, Soviet Union, Natural resources, ideologies.
East Asia: The Systemic Disorder and the South China Sea Dispute. An international law prospect
Victor Alexandre G. TEIXEIRA & Jose Francisco Lynce Zagallo PAVIA
This paper analyzes the South China Sea dispute when the international system lacks orientation and respect for the norms, values, and institutions. The conflict is conceptualized to encompass the States, International Law, and the East Asia order. The evidence demonstrates that ASEAN’s regional order is more efficient than the US-Led Liberal order through UNCLOS. Additionally, it is necessary to overhaul and strengthen the institutional mechanisms from international law regarding the United Nations. A change in the order and an international recognition are recommended to legitimize regional institutions to arbitrate territorial disputes.
ASEAN, regional order, conflict resolution, South China Sea Dispute.