TOPICS: Online conflict, radicalization, Herdsmen-Farmers conflict, South Sudan, Roma women
Christian Chereji and Ciprian Sandu
ARTICLES in Issue 31 – April 2020:
Bangladesh: Time spent online, conflict and radicalization
Sajid AMIT, Sadiat MANNAN & Md. Aynul ISLAM
The aim of this research is to investigate the risk of online radicalization, and invariably conflict, among young adults, particularly university-attending students, by relating their vulnerability to online radicalization with the amount of time they spend online. This research develops an original conceptual framework that maps out social influence, attributes of resilience and online safety vis-à-vis radicalization to assess and identify the said relationship. The study predominantly adopts a quantitative research approach using a sample of 600 University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh (ULAB) undergraduates. Analysis of data collected from students shows that the high-internet-user group, i.e. those who use the internet for seven hours or more a day, are more likely to find radical and religiously offensive material online; less likely to be influenced by family, faculty and community members; and have lower access to learning and knowledge resources that can render them resilient to radicalization and conflict. The results fare better for females than males, belonging to the high-internet-user categories, but female students are expected to be susceptible due to gender norms. In conclusion, it is posited that high-internet-user students are more vulnerable to online radicalization than others.
online radicalization, preventing violent extremism (PVE), countering violent extremism (CVE), youth, Bangladesh.
Nigeria: Conflict Victims’ Assessment and Narratives on the Reportage of Herdsmen-Farmers Conflict
Oberiri Destiny APUKE & Bahiyah OMAR
Nigeria has witnessed many violent clashes caused by herdsmen-farmers conflict. While past research has focused on media coverage of the conflict, conflict victims have seldom become the subject of investigation. This study attempts to understand the conflict victims’ assessment and narratives on the reportage of herdsmen-farmers conflict in Nigeria. Sixty (60) participants were interviewed from three (3) large communities in the North Central region of Nigeria. There is a prevailing view that the herdsmen and farmers conflict has not been given prominence by conventional media in Nigeria and the reportage of the conflict often disappear once the clashes subdue. This study considers conflict victims’ assessment on the objectivity, depth and outcome of media coverage of the conflict. It was found that Nigerian media do not report actual narratives of conflict victims, as reporters often rely on second hand stories and do not present themselves at the locations to gather news. Conflict victims, hence, claim that the Nigerian media suffers from lack of objectivity and high sensationalism. They also found that excessive use of negative language, which often indicate blame game, contributes to the escalation of the conflict. This calls for an urgent need for socially responsible journalists in Nigeria who promote messages of reconciliation, negotiation and diplomacy when reporting the herdsmen and farmers conflict.
Conflict, conflict reporting, conflict victims, herdsmen-farmers conflict, media coverage, Nigeria.
South Sudan: Ethnicity and statehood. Perception and the way forward
Timothy T. KULANG, Chidiebere C. OGBONNA & Wotsuna KHAMALWA
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of ethnic conflicts on the statehood of South Sudan and to proffer remedial solution to end the conflicts. The study set-out to realize two objectives: to investigate the causes of ethnic conflict in South Sudan and to determine the strategic remedies to end ethnic conflict in South Sudan. The study adopted descriptive cross-sectional research design. A sample of 399 respondents were selected from a target population of 5,734,057 using Slovene’s formula. Data were collected through questionnaire. Validity and Reliability of the questionnaire were established using Content Validity Index (CVI) and Cronbach’s alpha respectively. Results of the analyses on the first objective shows that the major causes of ethnic conflict in South Sudan are: unfair allocation of political positions, corruption and nepotism within the government system and power struggles among the elites. On the second objective, the study reveals that the remedies to ethnic conflict in South are, but not limited to: respect for minority rights and interest, fair allocation of state powers and national resources, a restructure of the modalities of coexistence through ethnic dialogue. Other remedial measures include: respect for ethnic communities’ boundary, restructuring of state administrative organs into units that spread across the different regions and states, as well the labor force in these administrative units should fairly represent the different ethnic affiliations within the country, full implementation of the 2018 Revitalized Peace Agreement (RPA) particularly, the chapter two of the security arrangements that emphasizes Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR).
Ethnicity, Ethnic conflict, Ethnic division, South Sudan, Statehood.
Romania: The role of Roma women in intra-community conflict management
The following article argues that, despite the traditional challenges Roma women faced, they are able to contribute significantly to the resolution of intra-community conflicts and earned, in time, a position of respect for this reason. Major barriers remain, but, in the same time, the evolution of the community is starting to give the Roma women empowerment over the conflict resolution mechanisms.
Kris, women, conflict management, gossip, curse, oath, tradition