TOPICS: Ansaroul Insurgency, Youth Extremism, Kurds, Liberia’s Civil War, UN Security Council
Christian Chereji and Ciprian Sandu
ARTICLES in Issue 29 – October 2019:
Burkina Faso: An Inquisition of Ansaroul Islam Insurgency in West Africa and Its Emerging Threat
Frederick Appiah AFRIYIE
Burkina Faso has suffered the numerous cruelties of terrorism, Ansaroul terrorism inclusive. Prior to their dormancy, two popular terrorist groups, the Ansaroul Islam and Jama’a Nusrat ul-Islam wa al-Muslimin (JNIM) had existed as the principal terrorists in Burkina and adjacent political entities. In some past years, the masters who had been behind the mask of violence in Burkina has been the Ansaroul. Believed to belong to a jihadist sect of the Mali rebellion and as well traced to the Al-Qa’ida, the Sahel area hosted this popular terrorist. The group has been responsible for far-reaching radicalism and cutting-edge violence within the Sahel, spreading its influence on the neighboring Afro Islamic countries, especially Burkina Faso. Against this background, this paper conducts an examination of the Ansaroul Islam activities. Inferences are drawn from secondary sources, thus articles which has already an about the subject of interest. The study will route audiences through analysis of literature to present the implications of related policies, their significance and consistency in giving a deadly blow to terrorism in the said region. However, the unrevised terrorism policies which do not align with provisions in a holistic international framework lacks the ability to break the shackles of terrorism on Africa and the global anti-terrorist society. Efforts to combat terrorism will, in the bosom of weak policies, remain infidel to peace.
Inquisition, Ansaroul Islam, Emerging West-Africa, Insurgency
Pakistan: Enticing Factors of Youth Extremism in Higher Educational Institutions
Muhammad ATIF, Babak MAHMOOD, Muhammad, FAROOQ & Ayesha CHAUDHARY
Extremism in universities is not a new phenomenon in the contemporary educational system. This study was conducted to explore the student mindset on extremism in higher educational institutions in Pakistan. In the HEIs, different groups are showing their power and do the extreme act for creating a horrifying and dangerous environment for students and in and outside of the university. The main objective of this study to explore the multiple grounds in higher educational institutions (HEIs) which enticing youth toward extremism. This research is based on secondary data analysis of different archives which are published in different newspapers about these extremist acts in universities. Thematic analysis technique was applied to highlight and discussed the relevant information related to the study objectives and themes. In this study, we found out different themes -ideology, heterogeneity ethnicity, identity, political and religious groups, university faculty and administration – that became the grounds of extremism acts. This study recommended that counter the extremism strategies that the main focus on the amendment in the education policy. Universities could control the activities of extremism in our education system through quality content and pedagogy. Universities should provide an excellent environment and encourage the youth to become tolerant, flexible and open-minded.
extremism, youth, Higher Educational Institutions, explore factors.
Turkey: The Kurdish Issue. Limits of Security Methods
The Kurdish issue is a long-running political problem of the Republic of Turkey. It has two main dimensions, an identity rights dimension and its armed conflict counterpart. The Republic tries to resolve the issue via its securitization approach. According to this article, the securitization approach would prevent Turkey from resolving the identity rights dimension of the issue. This dimension would be solved by multiculturalist political arrangements that recognize, preserve and promote Kurdish identity in both public and private realms. The securitization approach would be problematic even for the resolution of the armed conflict dimension of the issue. It puts individual Kurds in an awkward position in the Kurdish-populated provinces, where they face various economic, educational and social problems. All these problems may significantly damage the brotherhood of Kurds and Turks, and accordingly, dampen the Kurds’ desire for coexistence. Moreover, they may radicalize ethnic Kurds, especially Kurdish youth, who may begin to consider violent methods as the sole way of persuading Turkey to satisfy Kurdish demands, stimulating them to join the outlawed Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK). This radicalization would produce a constant and dramatic increase in the number of PKK recruits, making the resolution of the armed conflict dimension of the Kurdish question very difficult.
Kurds, Turkey, armed conflict, terrorism, multiculturalism.
Liberia: Civil War and the Complications SALWs Proliferation
Al Chukwuma OKOLI, George A. ATELHE, Ted. A. ALPHONSUS
This paper examines the complications of SALWs in the context of armed conflict with particular reference to the Liberian civil war. Using an exploratory analysis that relied on documentary data, as complemented by insights from Key Informant Interview (KII), the paper observed that the incidence of SALWs proliferation was one of the factors that complicated the Liberian crisis. The paper posits that the complications of SALWs proliferation in Liberia during and after the National crisis (1989-2003) posed a threat to the country’s national security. The threat is evident in the collateral impact of armed violence that characterized the Liberian crisis as well as the wave of armed criminality that has punctuated the country’s history in the aftermath of the crisis. In the light of its dire effects vis-à-vis sustainable peace, security and stability, this paper submit that SALWs proliferation has posed a threat to Liberian national security both in the conflict and post-conflict eras.
Liberia, Liberia crisis, SALWs, SALWs proliferation, national security, violent crime
UN Security Council: The ‘Frozen’ Victory of the Great Powers
There exists a broad agreement that the Security Council (SC) is anachronistic, and it is in urgent need of reform. Despite various attempts which have been made to amend the current structure of the SC for the last half a century, none of these has yielded any considerable result yet. This paper will look at the SC from both change management and international relations (IR) theories perspective and argue that the structure of the SC actually reflects not just 40s’ but also today’s “balance of power”, which will be corresponded with the “state of balance” or “equilibrium” concepts of change management, where both driving forces and the restraining forces seem to stand still in balance. This structure is so firmly ‘frozen’ that, no one has been able to “unfreeze” it in Lewin’s words, in order to launch a successful change, up until today. It will be concluded that the failure of change initiatives of the SC and at large, the global order is only likely to be explained by taking into consideration both the assumptions of those realist theories and change management approaches together.
international relations, change management, international organizations, IR
theories, power politics, global order