TOPICS: Traditional Conflict Resolution Practices, Kris Romani, Moro National Liberation Front, DDR, Regional Security, Rural Banditry
Christian Chereji and Ciprian Sandu
ARTICLES in Issue 24 – July 2018:
Romania: The Kris Procedure. A Brief Incursion in the Roma Community-Based Dispute Management Mechanism
Christian-Radu CHEREJI & Ciprian SANDU
Indigenous conflict management practices have seen a revival of scholarly interest in the last decades. Even if bias against them still exist in the academic and practitioners’ environments, they have slowly conquered ground as mediation and other ADR methods gained track as viable alternatives to the modern justice system of courts, judges and lawyers. In this paper we focus on discovering how Roma communities (probably one of the most misunderstood and stereotyped ethnic group in Europe) deal with conflict ranging from insult and theft all the way to kidnapping and murder. The Kris, as the traditional Roma court system is known, consists on a set of procedures that have strong similarities with both mediation and arbitration as known in the Western literature and practice, but with some notable particularities. The paper is based on interviews with krisinitori (peace judges in Romani language) and direct observation. It aims to unveil a system of practices based on rules and norms far away from the regular image of “uncivilized” and “lawless” the Roma hold in the mind of their European contemporaries.
Roma, Romani, Romanipen, disputes, conflict management, conflict resolution, indigenous practices, mediation, arbitration, facilitation, litigation, modern courts system, Kris, krisnitori, traditional justice, retributive justice, restorative justice
Philippines: In Search for Self-Determination. The Political History and Armed Struggle of the Moro National Liberation Front in Mindanao
Imma Concepcion F. GALERIANA & Primitivo III C. RAGANDANG
The myriad of Moro insurgent movements in the Philippines could be traced back to the abhorrent memoirs of Spanish occupation. The contemporary armed conflict between the government in Manila and the Moros was highly triggered by the Jabidah massacre in March 1968. The globally-known day of infamy inspired the historical birth of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) to start launching the freedom struggle of the oppressed Bangsamoro people of Mindanao against Philippine colonialism under the regime of Dictator Ferdinand E. Marcos. The MNLF was formally organized into two parallel structures: one political, the other military. The political wing was composed of a central committee, various bureaus and a system of provincial and village committees. The military wing – the Bangsa Moro Army – had an overall field marshal, provincial field marshals and zone commanders at the municipality level. Several attempts were done in order to halt the skirmishes led by the MNLF. Regardless of the countless skirmishes, assaults and uprisings, the MNLF sees this peaceful way now as a highly possible solution to end the Bangsamoro identity struggle against marginalization, oppression and fight for self-determination.
insurgent, MNLF, Bangsamoro, Tripoli, Jeddah Accord, Bangsamoro Basic Law
Nigeria: Perceptions of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration Modelling. Challenges and Prospects for Peace in Niger Delta
Disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) is a mechanism that mitigates the outbreak of violence. It has three components critical for peace, reconstruction and stability in every post-conflict society. The DDR programme commenced in 2009, when restive youths agitating for resource control accepted the amnesty proclaimed by President Umaru Yar’Adua. With primary and secondary data, the study investigated the perceptions communities have of the DDR for ex-militants, as well as the challenges and prospects for peace in the Niger Delta. The study showed that most of the respondents established a link between militancy and unemployment. The ex-militants were at peace with their various communities. The majority (76.5%) of the respondents believed that such ex-militants pose no threat to their communities after their being re-integrated. A major hindrance to the DDR is the unwillingness of some groups to totally disarm, while excluded groups agitate over exclusion in the programme. This contributed to the resurgence of youth violence against oil companies and security operatives in the Niger Delta. Therefore, preventing the resurgence of youth restiveness demands timely management of the conflicts that are motivated by grievances and lack of equity in the distribution of resources.
Amnesty, DDR, Federal Government, militancy, perceptions, Niger Delta.
Burundi and Gambia: Regional Security and Rapid Deployment Capability. The Utility of the African Standby Force
Enoch Ndem OKON & Dodeye Uduak WILLIAMS
The paper evaluates the Rapid Deployment Capability (RDC) of the African Standby Force (ASF) in post – Road Map III after 2015, viz-a-viz its’ mandate as the mechanism for regional Peace Support Operations (PSOs). The ASF failed to respond timeously to Malian and Central African Republic (CAR) conflicts in 2013 and this led to the formation of African Capacity for Immediate Response to Crises (ACIRC) as an interim RDC mechanism till 2015. The study is grounded on the theory of Collective Security. It adopts Case Study Research Design. Data are generated from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data are generated from Open-end interview, using purpose sampling method and secondary data involve the review of extant literature. Data are presented qualitatively on tables and analysed , using Content Analysis techniques. The study discusses the uniformity and differences in the generation of the ASF’s RDC in the management of Burundian and Gambian conflicts of 2015 and 2017 respectively. It reveals the factors which led to these differences in outcome, specifically the role of ‘democratic density’ and ‘competitive democratic security community’ and their impacts on conflict resolution in Africa. The study concludes that the RDC of the ASF is needed for robust regional security in Africa and recommends pragmatic and sustainable funding of the mechanism, as well as the creation of ‘security communities’ through shared democratic values across the continent.
Regional Security, African Standby Force, Rapid Deployment Capability, Burundi, The Gambia.
Nigeria: Rural Banditry and Community Resilience in the Nimbo Community
Jasper C. UCHE & Chijioke K. IWUAMADI
This paper examines the upsurge in rural violence in Nigeria occasioned by the activities of armed herdsmen. Focusing on the 25 April 2016 invasion of Nimbo Community in Enugu State, the paper argues that rural governance deficit and absence of effective security tending mechanisms took a turn for the worse. The major finding is that, beyond the common conflict triggers, the factionalization of a local vigilante in Nimbo bred criminal activities that escalated the tensed milieu. Traditional qualitative method of research was applied. The paper suggests prioritization of rural security in terms of intelligence gathering, response to early conflict warning signals and combat operations, as well as a multi-stakeholder consensus in mapping out mutually-rewarding terms of engagements for the pastoralists and sedentary farmers.
Rural Banditry, Insecurity, Agrarian Community, Herdsmen, Armed Clashes, Resilience.