TOPICS: Islamic State, Tutsi, Genocide, Small Arms Proliferation, Traditional Conflict Resolution Practices
Christian Chereji and Ciprian Sandu
ARTICLES in Issue 23 – April 2018:
Middle East: The Origins of the ‘Islamic State’ (ISIS)
This article examines the origins of the ‘Islamic State’ or the Islamic State of Iraq and Sham or Levant (ISIS) in light of the contemporary political and security challenges posed by its diffusion of Islamic radicalism. The Arab Spring in 2011 ignited instability in Syria providing an operational base for the terrorist group to pursue its once abandoned Islamic state idea. Its growth and expansion has hitherto proved to be a threat not only to the Middle East but to international security given its thrust on world domination. It concludes that the United States of America’s activities in the Middle East were largely responsible for the rise of the Islamic State.
Islamic State, Islamic radicalism, international security, Middle East.
Rwanda: In the Aftermath of Genocide against Tutsis. Survivor and non-victim position to the subordinate identity and “rwandeity” problem
Following the genocide against the Tutsi in 1994, the Rwandan government implemented a policy of strengthening national identification at the expense of the ethnic group identities, which resembled the common in-group identity model (CIIM) known in social psychology. The present interview study examined how participants live being a member of the survivor or non-victim group and being a Rwandan. It also investigated the different perspectives of survivors and non-victims in relation to the policy of strengthening national identification at the expense of the ethnic groups. Consistent with socio-emotional needs-based model (NBM) (Nadler & Shnabel, 2008), the results show that most non-victims support the policy of strengthening national identification at the expense of the ethnic group identity because the national identity permits them to escape this negative moral image conferred by the subordinate identity. For survivors, their subordinate identity is related to the history of victimization. Half of them were supportive of this policy but they had to ensure that the commemoration period is maintained. The two oldest survivors preferred political identities which consider the ethnic group and national identity at the same time. Other reasons advanced of supporting single recategorization policy are related to the official translated version of the history, diverse government policies, empathy towards to the members of the perpetrator group and not representing the prototype of the group.
Rwanda, genocide, subordinate identity, super-ordinate identity, single recategorisation policy and needs-based model of intergroup reconciliation
Tanzania: Small Arms Proliferation in East Africa and National Security
Enock NDAWANA, Mediel HOVE & Sylvester D. GHULIKU
This article examines the effects of the proliferation of small arms on Tanzania’s national security. Engaging the security dilemma theory, regional security complex theory and ideas about state weakness, the paper argues that the prevalence of small arms in Tanzania negatively shape the social, economic and political milieu with profound consequences for the stability and security of the country and region both in the short and longterm. While Tanzania continues to be relatively stable, it suffers from the proliferation of small arms. This may erode its long observed image as the anchor of East African stability if not urgently addressed. The paper concludes that Tanzania has both strengths or successes and weaknesses in its efforts to mitigate the small arms challenge in which the former need to be strengthened to avert the country’s image of peace and stability in East Africa from becoming an illusion.
national security, small arms, East Africa, Tanzania, state weakness, peace and stability.
Philippines: A Review of the Traditional Conflict Resolution Practices Among Indigenous Cultural Communities
Primitivo C. RAGANDANG III
This paper reviews the previous studies related to traditional conflict resolution practices of different indigenous cultural communities in the Philippines. Arranged according to tribes from three major island groups of the Philippines (i.e., Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao), it includes discussion on the system of conflict resolution among tribes, traditional means of conflict resolution among indigenous peoples, and forms and nature of punishments employed.
traditional, conflict resolution, indigenous, elders, mediation, negotiation.